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Periods in Punctuation and in Grammar

A period is (1) a punctuation mark ( . ) indicating a full stop, placed at the end of declarative sentences; and (2) a sentence of several carefully balanced clauses in formal writing.

How to Learn Arabic Intensively

Arabic, the language of the Koran, education and government in the Arab world, is spoken by more than 200 million people across the globe. The United States' Middle East interests have created a demand for Arabic language immersion programs in universities and language schools across America.

Common Birds in Mandarin

Learn the Mandarin names of common birds with this vocabulary list of birds. Each entry has an audio file for pronunciation and listening practice.

The Sedulous Ape, by Robert Louis Stevenson (page two)

In this essay, which originally appeared under the heading "A College Magazine" (1887), British novelist Robert Louis Stevenson describes how he learned to write by "play[ing] the sedulous ape"--imitating the distinctive styles of numerous great writers.

So You Think You're Fluent in Italian?

You could sit for any number of tests to determine your Italian fluency. But what if you don't excel at exam-taking, or prefer a different way to rank your fluency in Italian? The ILR Scale can be used to rank your Italian language skills and, if fluency is your goal, identify areas for improve

How to Improve Foreign Language Skills

Learning a foreign language can open up new worlds for you, both personally and professionally. Travel abroad with confidence by studying the language of your destination, or stand out among job applicants with your foreign language skills. Learning a language takes practice, exposure and a willingn

Saying "Could" in Spanish

The English auxiliary verb 'could' cannot always be translated the same way in Spanish.

Tone Excercise 4

Mastering the four Mandarin tones will help you gain fluency in Mandarin Chinese. The tones are used to determine the meanings of words.


A text that purposefully excludes a particular letter of the alphabet.